Science on Stage Europe The European platform for science teachers

Shoot to Thrill - Game theory and probability calculation in football (iStage 3)


Penalty shoot-outs are among the most thrilling situations that can occur during a football match. In this teaching unit the game theory is being introduced to the students. These get to know how to calculate the probability of scoring a goal with a single shot and how to optimise the penalty shoot-out by taking into account simple mathematics.

The teaching unit is taken from the brochure ‘iStage 3 - Football in Science Teaching’ from the topic ‘big data’ and is suitable for mathematics, physics and ICT classes. The complete brochure can be ordered free of charge via mail ( or downloaded. It was developed by 20 teachers from 15 countries around Europe. The project was proudly supported by SAP.

Authors: Stephen Kimbrough (DE), Damjan Štrus (SL)

iStage 3 - Shoot to thrill
iStage 3 - Elfmeter
iStage 3 - Tizenegyespárbaj
iStage 3 - Pena máxima
iStage 3 - Penalty à suspens
iStage 3 - Wystrzalowy strzal
iStage 3 - Rozstřel
iStage 3 - Straffläggning

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